LaboratoryDesign|MARCH|APRIL 2017 9
cleanroom is the gowning room. This
space (typically of higher classification)
allows an employee to change into the
proper attire for the clean process inside.
• Ante rooms are intermediate rooms
that allow for stepping down the ISO
classification for entering/exiting the
• Air locks are similar to ante rooms and
are designed for people or equipment.
• Pass-through rooms are used for
samples moving from one room to another of different classifications. These can
be bigger for wheeled equipment as well.
• Windows are designed in cleanrooms
for a few reasons, a common reason being
safety. It is important to make sure the
people working inside a cleanroom are safe.
Windows are detailed to be flush glazed to
avoid any horizontal surfaces that might
create an extra cleaning burden.
Many industries use cleanrooms, including pharmaceutical, micro-electronics,
semiconductor and medical device, to name
a few. Cleanrooms for the pharmaceutical
industry have a high cost per square foot,
mainly due to the use of 316 Stainless
steel for corrosion resistance among other
reasons. The pharmaceutical industry
often requires decontamination of cleanrooms, which is typically done by vaporized
hydrogen peroxide or chlorine dioxide.
Both methods tend to corrode some metals,
making stainless steel a necessity.
Cleanrooms require specialized materi-
als and systems that drive up the building
• Cleanroom flooring is commonly
specified as poured in place epoxy or
urethane or sheet vinyl with heat-welded
seams. These types of floors allow for a
continuous floor system with an integral
• Cleanroom walls can be coated with
fiber-reinforced plastic panels for a more
durable, yet expensive solution. A less
expensive option is epoxy paint.
• CPVC (Chlorinated Polyvinyl
Chloride) is a type of plastic panel used
inside cleanrooms on the walls and
ceiling that allows for corrosion and
• Cleanroom ceilings are typically
constructed of gypsum wall board or
a cleanroom-rated ceiling tile and grid
system. These tiles are sometimes made
of vinyl-faced gypsum wall board, which
make them heavier than normal ceiling
tiles and require hold-down clips to prevent the exfiltration of air.
• Cleanroom lighting typically consists
of lensed and sealed fixtures. These
specialized fixtures are designed for
wash-down procedures and to prevent the
exfiltration of air.
• Cleanroom devices are typically
manufactured of higher grade materi-
als such as stainless steel, and require
additional measures to keep clean and
prevent exfiltration. An example of some
devices may include gasketed outlets for
power and data (with Bio-seal), recessed
exit signs and special phones, intercoms
and cameras. All these materials provide
easily cleanable surfaces, as well as other
benefits such as chemical resistance.
• HEPA (high efficiency particulate
arresting) filtration are high performance
filters used to reduce the particulate
count in the air. These filters are subject to specialized cleaning and changing, sometimes referred to as “bag-in,
bag-out.” This can be done inside the
cleanroom, remotely above or at the air
• Specialized cleanroom furniture is
typically made of stainless steel and/or
high grade plastics.
• Supply and exhaust air (the mechanical system) are the main cost drivers for
cleanrooms. Air handling is where the big
dollars are spent. These costs have a wide
range depending on ISO classification,
temperature control, pressurization and
relative humidity requirements.
Taken together, each of these features
contributes to the increasing expense of
designing and constructing a cleanroom.
Typically, construction costs for an ISO 8 to
ISO 7 cleanroom can range from $250/sf to
$1,500/sf or more. Working with an experienced cleanroom lab designer can help a
company determine its design priorities and
manage the costs of building a cleanroom
Raffe Khazadian, AIA, NCARB, LEED AP
O+M, CDT, is an associate principal at TRIA, a
partner-led architecture firm with a focus on sci-
ence and technology organizations bringing new
discoveries to the market. www.tria.design
ALN Magazine is proud to announce the 2017 TurnKey Awards. These awards celebrate
excellence in vivarium design, facility
operations and teamwork, and creativity
in implementing the 3Rs.
The awards are comprised of three
The Facility of the Year Award
recognizes outstanding achievements in
the design/build of a new or renovated
laboratory animal facility. The award
is intended to showcase new ideas and
accomplishments in facility design,
construction, and operation. In order to
be considered, the facility must have been
completed no earlier than July 1, 2015.
The Team of the Year Award recognizes
an outstanding staff working in laboratory animal research. This award acknowledges the important role of teamwork in
the operation of a facility, humane care
of research animals, and the impact on
The Innovation in 3Rs Award recog-
nizes the creative ways that organiza-
tion’s implement the 3Rs at their facility
to replace animal models, reduce the
number of animals used, and refine
animal care and research. The winner of
this award can be a process, a product,
a service, etc. In order to be consid-
ered, the innovation should have been
implemented at your facility after July
Winners will be featured in the
September issue of ALN Magazine,
on www.alnmag.com, and in the ALN
The deadline for entries is June 15, 2017.
For more information, or to enter, go to
Entries now being accepted for 2017 TurnKey Awards!